UKH Journal of Social Sciences http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss <p><em>UKH Journal of Social Sciences</em>&nbsp;(UKHJSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSS publishes original researches in all areas of Social Sciences. UKHJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSS Section Policy includes three types of publications: Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. UKHJSS has an e-ISSN: 2520-7806; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong>10.25079/issn.2520-7806.</strong></p> University of Kurdistan Hewlêr en-US UKH Journal of Social Sciences 2520-7806 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br> 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> An Analysis of the Determinants of Youth Employment in Rwanda http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/47 <p>The main objective of this research is to analyze the determinants of youth employment in Rwanda from the point of view of the demand, supply and the general labor market. An analysis of the data shows that a skill gap is most critical for employment creation and a transition from school-to-work seems problematic. Further, questions remain about what factors influence youth employment in Rwanda and how youth employment is related to poverty reduction and distribution of income. The study uses a multinomial logit model to shed light on the determinants of youth employment status in the country using data from the National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). It verifies how the current status of youth employment in Rwanda has evolved over time and based on its findings it provides policy recommendations to promote youth employment. The research finds that youth employment in Rwanda is influenced by gender, age, education and geographical location. The finding of this research has implications for the youth unemployment in Kurdistan Region.</p> Joseph Ndagijimana Tharcisse Nzasingizimana Almas Heshmati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-09-13 2018-09-13 2 2 1 10 10.25079/ukhjss.v2n2y2018.pp1-10 Causality between Gross Domestic Product and Health Care Expenditure in the Augmented Solow’s Growth Model http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/76 <p>This paper examines conditional convergence of OECD countries in gross domestic product (GDP) and health care expenditure (HCE) per capita. It extends the augmented Solow model by incorporating health capital to explain variations in output and expenditure per capita across countries. The issue of causality between GDP and HCE is investigated. The results show that HCE has positive effect on the economic growth and the speed of convergence. In the HCE model a regression of the speed of convergence on variables determining the rate of convergence show close link to the variables characterising the health care system of sample countries.</p> Almas Heshmati ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-26 2018-12-26 2 2 19 30 10.25079/ukhjss.v2n2y2018.pp19-30 Macroeconomic Policy and Agricultural Value Chain in Nigeria http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/59 <p>The objective of the paper was to investigate macroeconomic policy and agricultural value chain in Nigeria. The period&nbsp;covered is 1981–2016. The analysis is based on the autoregressive distributed lag framework. A long-run equilibrium&nbsp;relationship was found among the variables used in the investigation. Government expenditure and broad money supply&nbsp;(the macroeconomic policy variables used) were found to have significant positive impact on the agricultural value chain.&nbsp;Energy was found to also have a direct statistically significant impact on agricultural value chain. Based on the results, it&nbsp;is recommended that there should be an enabling macroeconomic policy framework, which gives emphasis to improved&nbsp;budgetary allocation to the agricultural sector, increases money supply, and promotes agencies that can directly impact the&nbsp;level of finance to agricultural value chain related businesses in Nigeria. Above all, electricity supply should be enhanced.</p> Martins Iyoboyi Samuel Felix Okereke Latifah Musa-Pedro ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-27 2018-12-27 2 2 31 40 10.25079/ukhjss.v2n2y2018.pp31-40 General Overview of the Consequences of African Water Conflicts http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/64 <p>This review article introduces the reasons and consequences of the water conflicts in Africa. Water is vital to life and an incredibly essential resource. The role of water has been growing in the last 21 century. Earlier crude oil was regarded as the black gold, but nowadays, water is the blue gold. The climate change, the insufficient water management and overpopulation have been causing water scarcity in Africa. The countries which suffer water scarcity have to face various challenges such as drought, hunger, poverty and disease. As a result of the lack of water, the habitants of the affected territory have to leave their home and migrate to new lands. This migration causes tension between the new comers and the original local population. The tensions and conflicts generate more and more refugees and migrants who have to wander further. Therefore significant numbers of people leave the African continent and migrate to Europe and to other parts of the World. The European Union is looking for solutions for the problem however; the outcome of any possible solutions could cause more conflicts in Africa which could generate more migrants and asylum seekers</p> Ákos Treszkai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-26 2018-12-26 2 2 11 18 10.25079/ukhjss.v2n2y2018.pp11-18 Rise, Birth and Defeat of Daesh http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/84 <p>The originality of the organization called “Islamic State” is that it is quite different in its mode of operation from all the other jihadist movements, including the Al-Qaida. Its use of terror is particularly spectacular and meant to affect the public, Horror is not hidden but is part of their propaganda, just like terror is meant to paralyse. The following examines the rise and decline of this organization.</p> Gérard Chaliand, Prof. ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 2 2 41 42 10.25079/ukhjss.v2n2y2018.pp41-42