UKH Journal of Social Sciences http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss <p><em>UKH Journal of Social Sciences</em>&nbsp;(UKHJSS) is a semi-annual academic journal published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSS publishes original researches in all areas of Social Sciences. UKHJSS is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSS provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSS Section Policy includes three types of publications: <em>Articles</em>, <em>Review Articles</em>, and <em>Letters</em>. UKHJSS has an e-ISSN: 2520-7806; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong><a href="http://doi.org/10.25079/issn.2520-7806">10.25079/issn.2520-7806</a>. </strong><em>UKHJSS</em> is a&nbsp;member of the DOAJ.</p> University of Kurdistan Hewlêr en-US UKH Journal of Social Sciences 2520-7806 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br> 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).</p> Determinants of homeownership in the condominium housing sites of Ambo, Ethiopia http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/106 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This study investigated the determinants of homeownership among the residents of the condominium housing sites of Ambo town, West Shewa Zone, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. It employed a descriptive research design, mainly using cross-sectional and correlational studies. A total sample of 230 respondents were selected through a random sampling method. The logistic regression model output showed that homeownership was determined by respondents’ gender, age, monthly income, saving practice, loan and credit services, marital status, and household size, while education level, occupation type, and land produced insignificant results. The chi-squared test and independent samples t test results also revealed significant associations and differences among and between different variables. The absence of land, lack of capital, bureaucratic system of land provision, limited loan and credit services, and high interest rates were also mentioned as determinant factors of homeownership. Moreover, mean values were computed to determine the adequacy and accessibility of basic amenities between the two sites. Therefore, the study recommends that the government should reformulate a profound housing policy that would improve the efficiency of the housing provision system and reduce the cost of homeownership.</p> </div> </div> </div> Abenezer Wakuma Kitila ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 3 2 1 18 10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp1-18 Examining the Concurrent Effects of Specific Corporate Traits and Macroeconomic Variables on Capital Structure http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/107 <p>The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of the specific characteristics of the company and the macroeconomic variables on the capital structure of the companies accepted in the Tehran Stock Exchange between 2007 and 2014 using the panel data approach. To measure specific characteristics of a company, the profitability ratio, payable dividends ratio and the stock price performance ratio were applied; also, variables such as GDP growth rate, exchange rate, inflation rate, interest rate and the ratio of the amount of bank credits as macroeconomic variables have been employed. The results of this research showed that in the whole industry, the variables of profitability ratio, the payable dividends ratio and the ration of the amount of bank credits have a negative and significant effect, and GDP growth rate has a positive and significant effect on capital structure. Similarly, the results show that the effects of specific corporate variables differ from macroeconomic variables on capital structure according to the type of industry.</p> Aso Esmailpour Ali Sarkhosh Sara Mohammad Rahimpour ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 3 2 19 31 10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp19-31 The Growing Phenomenon of Money Rituals-Motivated Killings in Nigeria: An Empirical Investigation into the Factors Responsible http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/133 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>This study investigated how beliefs in magical powers and related sacred activities, particularly those that accept human body parts for ritual sacrifices in return for fortunes, alongside poverty, unemployment, and quest for wealth as predictors responsible for the increase in money ritual–related killings in Ilorin Emirate of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 1736 respondents were selected using simple random sampling techniques. The instrument employed for data collection was a questionnaire. In addition, the information gathered was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. The results indicated that the increase in money ritual–related killings in Ilorin Emirate is a result of the general belief that ritual sacrifices enhance fortunes, the boundless desire for material wealth among Nigerians, unemployment, and poverty in Nigeria. Therefore, this paper suggests that there should be public enlightenment in all languages spoken in Nigeria about the dangers in associating individual success with spiritual influences.</p> </div> </div> </div> Habeeb Abdulrauf Salihu Monsurat Isiaka Isiaka Abdulaziz ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 3 2 32 44 10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp32-44 The Use of Presuppositions in the Short Story of Zilkê Şixatê (Matchstick) http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/138 <p>This study explores the use of presuppositions in the Kurdish short story, Zilkê Şixatê (The Matchstick), which is written in Northern Kurmanji dialect (hence, NK) by Isma’il Hajani. It attempts to determine which type of presupposition is the most recurring one in the short story and why it is so. The data in this study are analyzed descriptively and qualitatively. Yule’s (2006) classification which divides presupposition into six types has been employed: existential, factive, non-factive, lexical, structural, and counterfactual. The data of the research are sentences which contain presupposition triggers (i.e. linguistic forms to mark presuppositions). Applying the formula presented by Oktoma and Mardiyono (2013: 79), the results obtained throughout this paper show that different types of presuppositions have different percentages from the total number of presuppositions. They are (94) in number. It is noted that the most dominant type of presupposition used in the short story is the existential presupposition, manifesting definite descriptions of facts about real life, while the structural presuppositions have the lowest percentage. This shows that much of the story text is written to definitely describe the main theme, the characters and the events as they are. Finally, this study is particularly important because no other such studies have been conducted on the use of presuppositions in any literary work in NK. Therefore, this study occupies a crucial place in the research literature into pragmatic aspects of NK.</p> Sabah Sulaiman Haji Fakhir Omar Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 3 2 45 55 10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp45-55 On Standard of Living and Infant Survival in Some East African Countries http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/147 <p>To summarize the extent of infant survival in a country, three indices have been defined. The first one is the complement to 1000 of the infant mortality rate (expressed in per thousand births). The second one takes into account the inequality in infant survival rates between population subgroups. The third indicator adjusts the average infant survival rate by giving more weight to a population subgroup with a lower socio-economic status. The computation of the last two indicators requires the use of an inequality index and a concentration ratio.We used two measures of inequality, the Gini index and the Bonferroni index, as well as two concentration ratios, derived from the Gini index and related to the Bonferroni index. A short empirical illustration, based on seven East African countries, confirms the usefulness of the approach presented in this paper.</p> Jacques Silber ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 3 2 56 67 10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp56-67 An Analysis of Exports and Imports and Their Effect on the Economic Growth in Iraq http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjss/article/view/164 <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The Iraqi economy faces more challenges than opportunities, especially in recent years due to the civil war, while basic reforms for merging the private and public sector have commenced. This paper examines the causal relationship between exports, imports, and Iraq’s economic growth. The data are annual time series for the period 1980-2017. Thereafter, the data are stationary in different levels. Johansen cointegration is applied to figure out the long-run association among the variables. Moreover, Granger causality test has been used to direct the causality among variables. This paper finds that in the long run, exports and imports on gross domestic product are co-integrated and variables have a long-run association. The Granger causality result shows that exports affect economic growth, while imports also have a positive impact on Iraq’s economic growth. On the contrary, the relationship between exports and imports show that any increase in the volume of exports will increase the volume of imports. However, the converse is not true as the volume of imports does not influence exports in Iraq.</p> </div> </div> </div> Shene Mohammad Kamaran Abdulla Hazhar Khalid Ali ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-28 2019-12-28 3 2 68 76 10.25079/ukhjss.v3n2y2019.pp68-76