UKH Journal of Science and Engineering http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse <p><em>UKH Journal of Science and Engineering</em> (UKHJSE) is a semi-annual academic journal<strong>&nbsp;</strong>published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSE publishes original researches in all areas of Science and Engineering. UKHJSE is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSE provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSE Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. UKHJSE has an e-ISSN: 2520-7792; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong><a href="http://doi.org/10.25079/issn.2520-7792">10.25079/issn.2520-7792</a>. </strong><em>UKHJSE</em> is a&nbsp;member of the DOAJ.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br> 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).<br> </p> ojs.admin@ukh.edu.krd (Prof. Tarik A. Rashid) ojs.admin@ukh.edu.krd (Ahmed S. Shamsaldin) Fri, 27 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 3.1.0.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Quarries and the Environment in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/169 <p class="AbsKeyword"><a name="_Hlk27142596"></a>Quarries of different types and uses and quarried materials can be foundeverywhere in the Kurdistan region, Iraq. The main quarries are those of limestone used for cement production, and they are of multiphases and are well designed. Other quarries are randomly located without any scientific aspects; these are used for local purposes, mainly for aggregates. However, they are all polluting the environment (air, water, and soil) in different intensities and moods.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Varoujan K. Sissakian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/169 Fri, 27 Dec 2019 20:10:04 +0300 Implementation of Hydraulic Fracturing Operation for a Reservoir in KRG http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/113 <div> <p class="AbsKeyword">This study focuses on procedures to enhance permeability and flow rate for a low permeability formation by <a name="_Hlk27063699"></a>creating a conductive path using the hydraulic fracturing model. Well data are collected from the Qamchuqa KRG oil field formation. A Fracpro simulator is used <a name="_Hlk27063731"></a>for modelling the hydraulic fracturing process in an effective way. The study focuses on an effective hydraulic fracturing design procedure and the parameters affecting the fracture design. Optimum design of fracturing is achieved by selecting the proper fracturing fluid with a suitable proppant carried in a slurry, determining the formation fracturing pressure, selection of a fracture propagation fluid, and also a good proppant injection schedule, using a high pump rate and good viscosity. Permeability and conductivity are calculated before and after applying the hydraulic fracturing. Fracture height, length, and width are calculated from the Fracpro software, among other parameters, and the production rate changes. From the results, it is observed that by using hydraulic fracturing technology, production will increase and permeability will be much higher. The original formation permeability is 2.55 md, and after treatment, the average fracture conductivity has significantly increased to 1742.3 md-ft. The results showed that average fracture width is 0.187 inch. The proppant used in this treatment has a permeability of 122581 md. The suitable fluid choice is hyper with an apparent viscosity of 227.95 cp, and the proper proppant type is Brady sand with a conductivity of 2173.41 md-ft. Fracture orientation <a name="_Hlk27063957"></a>from the Khurmala oil field in Kurdistan is vertical fractures produced at a depth of 1868 m. Fracture half-length, total fracture height, and average fracture width are 220 ft, 42 ft, and 0.47 inch, respectively. After fracturing, the maximum and average area <a name="_Hlk27064009"></a>of fracture are 33.748 and 17.248 ft<sup>2</sup>, respectively. <a name="_Hlk27064021"></a>The recommended pump hydraulic horse power is 3200 HHP, and the total required fluid is 1076.3 bbl. In this study, hydraulic fracture is designed, and then, it has been analyzed after that production is optimized.</p> </div> Akram Humoodi, Maha R. Hamoudi, Rasan Sarbast ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/113 Fri, 27 Dec 2019 18:53:41 +0300 Bacteriological and Molecular Study Characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Different Clinical Specimens http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/128 <p><em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> is one of&nbsp;the foremost&nbsp;imperative&nbsp;opportunistic&nbsp;pathogens. Urinary characteristic&nbsp;disease&nbsp;is the common&nbsp;infectious&nbsp;bacterial&nbsp;contamination&nbsp;caused &nbsp;by <em>K. pneumonia,</em>&nbsp;that&nbsp; are&nbsp;rising&nbsp;around the world&nbsp;comprising a&nbsp;danger&nbsp;to community and clinic settings. <em>K. pneumonia</em>&nbsp;Isolates&nbsp;were&nbsp;&nbsp;evaluated for their antimicrobial&nbsp;susceptibility. Samples were taken from 80 patients with &nbsp;diverse diseases &nbsp;infection. Genomic DNA of <em>K. pneumonia </em>Confines&nbsp;were extricated&nbsp; and detection&nbsp;of ESBL&nbsp;Genes was 53.75% of the isolates &nbsp;were predominance&nbsp;for ESBL &nbsp;Genes&nbsp;blaTEM, blaSHV and bla CTX-M 82.5, 92.5 &nbsp;and &nbsp;70 %, respectively. Out of 100 obtained clinical&nbsp;isolates&nbsp;of <em>K. pneumonia </em>from&nbsp;diverse healing centers&nbsp;and therapeutic research facilities&nbsp;in Duhok/ Iraq&nbsp;as it were (80%) isolates&nbsp;had a place&nbsp;to the&nbsp;genus&nbsp;<em>K. pneumonia.</em> Ampicillin and Aztreonam 100 % anti-microbial&nbsp;resistance where was Imipenem Ertapenem Meropenem 100% sensitive. Conveyance&nbsp;of ESBLs&nbsp;creating&nbsp;<em>K. pneumoniae</em> among different&nbsp;clinical tests&nbsp;because it&nbsp;was 71.42% in&nbsp;urine, 40. 90 % in wound swabs, 42. 10 % in sputum and 50 % in blood culture. The&nbsp;recurrence&nbsp;of the ESBL&nbsp;production&nbsp;can easily be&nbsp;thought little of&nbsp;within the clinical&nbsp;isolates&nbsp;of <em>K. pneumoniae </em>with the&nbsp;utilize&nbsp;of the current CLSI suggested&nbsp;strategies, an&nbsp;ideal&nbsp;recognizable proof&nbsp;of the ESBL creating isolates is basic to define approaches for an&nbsp;experimental&nbsp;antimicrobial&nbsp;treatment &nbsp;</p> Marwan Khalil Qader ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/128 Fri, 27 Dec 2019 19:17:29 +0300 A Study of The Convolutional Neural Networks Applications http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/167 <p class="Abstracttxt">At present, deep learning is widely used in a broad range of arenas. <a name="_Hlk27128977"></a>A convolutional neural networks (CNN) is becoming the star of deep learning as it gives the best and most precise results when <a name="_Hlk27129037"></a>cracking real-world problems. In this work, a brief description <a name="_Hlk27129053"></a>of the applications of CNNs in two areas will be presented: First, in computer vision, generally, that is, scene labeling, face recognition, action recognition, and image classification; Second, in natural language processing, that is, the fields of speech recognition and text classification.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Ahmed S. Shamsaldin, Polla Fattah, Tarik A. Rashid, Nawzad K. Al-Salihi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/167 Fri, 27 Dec 2019 19:23:24 +0300 Oil Well Testing Using Production Logging Tool in Khurmala field in Kurdistan Region-Iraq http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/168 <p class="Abstracttxt"><a name="_Hlk27047625"></a>Production logging tools (PLTs) in oil and gas industries are used for obtaining fluid types and measuring fluid rates in the borehole for both production and injection wells and to better understand the well productivity or the well injectivity of the interest zones. Additionally, it can be used to detect well problems, such as early water or gas breakthrough, channeling behind casing or tubing, and water or gas coning. The Khurmala field is a big oil field in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. <a name="_Hlk27048394"></a>PLTs have been acquired in many of the Khurmala oil wells, and the log records took into consideration <a name="_Hlk27048390"></a>the production technique decisions. In this study, results of the PLT log will be discussed in one of the Khurmala oil wells. Owing to the long history of production of oil or gas wells, many problems have been seen, such as coning either water or gas, formation damage, casing corrosion, and well obstruct. This research will evaluate the production profile across the slotted liner interval of (W1) well in the Khurmala oil field in the Iraq-Kurdistan region and detect possible water entry points, verify the distribution and nature of fluids, and estimate fluid segregation after the shut-in period. This was done by applying PLTs and interpreting the data by using Emeraude software.<a name="_Hlk27048514"></a>The performance of each choke size was studied and assessed. It was found that a choke size of 48/64̎gives the best favorable production gas, oil ratio, and profile. Results from the PL survey showed that no water entry was detected across the logged interval. All the water was coming from below a depth of 990 m; most of the hydrocarbons were coming from the slotted interval <a name="_Hlk27048683"></a>across 981.8-982.9 m, and the flowing pressure across the logged interval using maximum choke was less than the saturation pressure.</p> Maha R. Hamoudi, Akram Humoodi, Bashdar A. Mohammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/168 Fri, 27 Dec 2019 19:50:19 +0300 Shanidar Cave: An Interesting Archeological Site in Iraqi Kurdistan Region http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/104 <p>Shanidar Cave is one of the most well-known caves in Iraqi Kurdistan Region. It is an archaeological site located within Bradost Mountain north of Erbil city. Eleven skeletons of Neanderthals, have been found within the cave dating back to 65000 – 35000 years, they were called Shanidar (1 – 11). The cave also contains two later "proto-Neolithic" cemeteries.</p> Varoujan K. Sissakian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/104 Fri, 27 Dec 2019 18:29:01 +0300