UKH Journal of Science and Engineering http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse <p><em>UKH Journal of Science and Engineering</em> (UKHJSE) is a semi-annual academic journal<strong>&nbsp;</strong>published by the University of Kurdistan Hewlêr, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq. UKHJSE publishes original researches in all areas of Science and Engineering. UKHJSE is a Peer-Reviewed Open Access journal with CC BY-NC-ND 4.0&nbsp;license. UKHJSE provides immediate, worldwide, barrier-free access to the full text of research articles without requiring a subscription to the journal, and has neigther article processing charge (APC) nore article submission charge (ASC). UKHJSE Section Policy includes three types of publications; Articles, Review Articles, and Letters. UKHJSE has an e-ISSN: 2520-7792; and a member of Crossref, DOI:&nbsp;<strong>10.25079/issn.2520-7792.</strong></p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br> 1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License [CC BY-NC-ND 4.0] that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgment of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.<br> 2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.<br> 3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).<br> </p> ojs.admin@ukh.edu.krd (Dr. Sherwan Kafoor) salah.yahya@ukh.edu.krd (Prof. Dr. Salah I. Yahya) Thu, 13 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 3.1.0.0 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Asnawa – The Forgotten Mountain http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/53 <p>In Kurdish vocabulary, Asnawa means a place where iron is rich in the area. The five iron quarries of Asnawa are located to the south-east of Penjween town. A difficult unpaved road climbs through the Bilkian valley leads to the area of the iron ore which can be visited only by a four-wheel drive vehicle. The aria is about 1350 meters high in elevation and takes only half an hour from Penjween to reach to the quarries. The areas surrounding the road and the quarries are dangerous as being full of remnants of weapons especially mine fields and different kinds of unexploded shells.</p> Sherwan Kafoor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/53 Thu, 13 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Towards Society Revolution http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/74 <p>It is expected that the 5G will change the landscape of the communication paradigm as it will offer huge number of device connections, high data rate, evolutionary channel modulation, etc. The 5G predicts to have billions of devices connected through its new scenarios involving Internet of Things (IoT), Machine Type Communications (MTC), Machine- to- Machine Communications (M2M) via the use of different types of devices including but not restricted to smartphones based IP packet.</p> Tara I. Yahiya ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/74 Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Transportation of Cuttings in Inclined Wells http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/52 <p>One of the most important functions performed by drilling fluid is the removal of cutting from the bottom of the hole to the surface. This function must be performed efficiently if not, the cuttings produced during drilling process will accumulate in the annulus. This problem in directional drilling is featured by gravitational forces. Problems resulting from inefficient cutting transport include pipe stuck, wear of bit, reduction in penetration rate, high torque and drag with many other problems encountered. In high angle deviated wells, the cutting goes through a complex path to the surface where some of the cuttings gravitate to the low side of the well. Reduction in any problem associated with improper cutting transport require good understanding in cutting transport mechanisms. This research focuses on calculating the minimum annular velocity of drilling fluid and minimum pump flow rate which is required to achieve hole- cleaning and lifting of the cutting to the surface, taking into consideration the main parameters that affect the coring capacity of the drilling fluid, for this purpose, data of a deviated well (X) located in Kurdistan region of Iraq is collected to determine slip velocity, annular velocity, critical flow rate and carrying capacity index taking in consideration the mud used and the angle of the deviation using the drilling formula spread sheet V1.6.</p> Maha R. A. Hamoudi, Akram H. Abdulwahhab, Amanj Walid Khalid, Deelan Authman, Rebin Ali Mohammed Ameen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/52 Thu, 13 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Slope Stability Assessment of Korre Village Landslide, SW of Shaqlawa Town, the Kurdistan Region http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/24 <p>Potentially unstable slopes present hazards and pose risks to the traveling public, to the transportation infrastructures, to&nbsp;local economies, and to the environment. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the landslide hazards along Permam–Shaqlawa main road employing the landslide possibility index (LPI) proposed by Bejerman (1994; 1998). The LPI values along with the hazard category were applied to three stations along the above-mentioned main road at Korri village. The raw data&nbsp;for determining the LPI and hazard category were obtained from field observations and measurements. The obtained data&nbsp;involved the study of 10 main characteristic features encompassing geological, structural, hydrological, and geomorphologic conditions of the area under study. Further, soil samples were obtained from the study area for conducting some selected&nbsp;geotechnical properties for interpretation of the obtained results. With no exceptions, all road cut slopes have adverse factors that contribute to create potentially unsafe ground above the main road. The results also indicated that the possibility of failures is high at each station. The causal factors for a landslide in the study area were also presented. In addition, the&nbsp;remedial measures for study slope locations are suggested based on the degree of possibility of failure and field observations.</p> Varoujan K. Sissakian, Hassan Othman Omer, Zryan Taher Mustafa ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/24 Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Minerals Wealth in the Kurdistan Region, Iraq http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/61 <p>The Kurdistan region covers the northern and northeastern parts of Iraq which forms the extreme northeastern part of&nbsp;the Arabian Plate. It is colliding with the Eurasian Plate. The collision has caused thrusting parts of the ophiolite inside Iraq from Iran, besides the hydrothermal fluids which have deposited different metallic minerals.&nbsp;The Kurdistan region is characterized by the presence of metallic minerals such as Fe, Zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), Cu, Cr-Ni, and&nbsp;Mn, besides uranium and thorium. The formation of these minerals is associated with the development of the tectonic&nbsp;framework. The major tectonic events are associated with the Tethys development and movement of the Arabian Plate&nbsp;toward the Iranian Plate. Most of the metallic mineralization’s are of the Alpine-type, of Cretaceous age. Some Zn-Pb&nbsp;showing is related to early Alpine activities. Uranium and thorium are of Cretaceous and Jurassic ages.&nbsp;The actual mineral wealth of the Kurdistan region is not known, due to the lack of detailed geological data. However,&nbsp;based on the available data, it is expected that the region is promising for Cu, Fe, Zn, and Pb, besides the radioactive&nbsp;minerals. A critical review is presented to show the potential of the metallic minerals wealth in the region. Moreover,&nbsp;recommendations are given to have a better view of the minerals wealth.</p> Varoujan K. Sissakian ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/61 Mon, 17 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Long-Term Drinking Water Quality Assessment Using Index and Multivariate Statistical Analysis for Three Water Treatment Plants of Erbil City, Iraq http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/65 <p>Safe source of drinking water is always considered as an essential factor in water supply for cities and urban areas. As a part of this issue, drinking water quality is monitored via a useful scheme: developing drinking water quality index DWQI. DWQI is preferably used as it summarizes the whole physicochemical and bacteriological properties of a drinking water sample into a single and simple term. In this study, an evaluation was made for three drinking water treatment plants DWTPs named: Efraz 1, Efraz 2 and Efraz 3 that supply drinking water to Erbil City. The assessment was made by testing thirteen physicochemical and two bacteriological parameters during a long period of (2003 – 2017). It has been found that turbidity, electrical conductivity EC, total alkalinity, total hardness, total coliform and fecal coliform have more influence on drinking water quality. DWQI results showed that the quality of drinking water supplied by the three DWTPs in Erbil City fallen within good level. Except various occasional periods where the quality was varying from good to fair. The quality of the drinking water supply never reached the level of marginal or poor over the time investigated. The applied hierarchical clustering analysis HCA classifies the drinking water dataset into three major clusters, reflecting diverse sources of the physicochemical and bacteriological parameter: natural, agriculture and urban discharges.</p> Hayder Mohammed Issa, Reem Ahmed Alrwai ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 http://journal.ukh.edu.krd/index.php/ukhjse/article/view/65 Wed, 26 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300